Readings: E-Learning: Chapter 11


Chapter 11—Leveraging Examples in e-Learning (pages 222–248)

Read the Chapter. Write your response by Thursday. Reply to at least 2 people’s posts. :heart: at least 3 that seem interesting, provocative, that you agree with, or otherwise wish to acknowledge. At least one of your responses should be written after Thursday when everyone has had a chance to post. Ideally, you’ll participate on at least three different days.

What to Look for

Both @M_McCoy & @Natalie_Weston contributed to these notes. @M_McCoy edited it first, so @pfaffman, tired of being confused by people replying to his words when they were written by someone else, arbitrarily made @M_McCoy the owner of the page.

In Chapter 11 Clark & Mayer (2011) provide guidelines for using a worked example. Worked examples are a powerful tool in the instructional professional’s arsenal that can assist the learner to build skills for critical thinking and creative problem solving. Worked examples can be used to guide learners in learning procedural skills (for example, the steps in completing a math problem) or strategic skills (for example, when negotiating a sales contract). As explained by Clark & Mayer (2011) learners can also receive further benefit when modeling (demonstration by a person of the task) is included with the worked example.

Provide a worked example, adhering to the principles that Clark & Mayer have presented. Give a thorough explanation of why you chose that particular example, how you have applied the principles, and how it will promote far transfer for the learner.


In the worked example below, much like the one on page 242 in figure 11.10 , I have included principles that Clark & Mayer have presented. For training a new admissions counselor to effectively process the various student circumstances, it should be understood that there are particular items you touch on no matter the circumstance. For this example, there is a model, Lois, who is playing the role the new admissions counselor will be in. There are three students with different contexts, but again, the same methods should be applied for this lesson in each scenario.

The example done by Lois will be exclusively done with audio so learners can concentrate on using two channels, auditory and visual. On each worked example the new admissions counselor works on by themselves, the learner will find information button that provides instructional explanation in text, that can be played with audio by pressing the sound button if they so choose. I have included only graphics of the people involved and the navigation buttons for learners to use. This will limit the extraneous cognitive processing while completing the lesson. The sound button is available based on the contiguity principle. Whenever the sound is not in use, text will be available instead.

This worked example will promote far transfer because of its inclusion of varied contexts and self-explanation questions. These two items will allow the learner to practice using the same principle for different situations and review why they have responded as they did for the example. Including these two guidelines for far transfer encourage practice with differing contexts and encouraging the new admissions counselor’s processing. I like this type of worked example for workforce training and to achieve far transfer for incoming employees.


Currently within the University Health System, there will be the emergence of one electronic carting system for the Health System as a whole. This will be a major learning barrier for those who may have never used an electronic system before or even if they have, old charting systems and habits die hard. I have been involved with the building of the Neonatal Respiratory component and will under go a week of train the trainer training prior to attending the super-user class. Once these two weeks of training have been completed, I will be responsible for teaching the procedures for the new charting system to the NICU respiratory therapists. I have begun working on the online tutorial that will be available as a resource for the departmental staff.

The following screenshots are of the first page of how the tutorial will be presented. (Please take into account that this is a work in progress…)

Of course there will be a more thorough explanation of each step as I continue to work on this tutorial. So, it will become a procedural skill that has a modeling component to it. Once the online tutorial has been completed, the staff will sit down with me to have more live training with the mock patients built for training purposes. It is very important that the staff can return demonstration and resolve some of the charting issues that may arise.

I want to encourage active observing so that the staff doesn’t feel completely unfamiliar with the charting system prior to the go-live date.


You have provided an excellent worked example. I agree it would give the learner greater understanding on how to assist students from diverse populations and backgrounds in their admissions process. I also liked that you would provide the option for audio or on screen text, but not both at the same time.

I am wondering if the learners would find the graphic of Chris from Family Guy distracting since he would be recognizable to most college age students? The other question I have is why you named the non-traditional student ‘Grandpa’? Non-traditional students are not all necessarily senior citizens and using that title could be taken negatively. It may be better to use graphics that are innocuous.

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I wondered if the pictures would be more relatable or distracting. For this example, I did choose to use these pictures for the class. I hoped to add a bit of cheer to the learning experience, but again, this can be distracting.

Grandad is also a character on a cartoon show. I didn’t Google his actual name on the show, I just know they call him “Grandad.” This can be distracting if people are not familiar with the show and potential learners may consider the negative associations with using such an older student as the example for a nontraditional student. But nontraditional students truly can be all ages, and that is something a new admissions counselor has to learn. Grandad could be an Ingalls employee that we want to return to finish his bachelors.

Thanks for your feedback! It gave me a better perspective, even while trying to relate to a student group, it could cause more distractions than intended. Must keep the learning goals in mind and omit unnecessary, distracting graphics.


Thank you for being a good sport about my comments. Please accept my apologies if I came across too strong or negative. What is funny is that I am showing my age since I wasn’t familiar with the ‘Grandad’ character! Lol!

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Your worked example clearly shows you have put a lot of thought into making sure the learner understands each step in the procedure. I appreciate how you have also included yourself as a model during the live training sessions utilizing mock patients. From what you have explained your training sessions will allow the learner to encounter several different scenarios they may encounter once they begin using the new electronic charting system. Great job!


I take constructive criticism pretty well!


This is a great example of a far transfer application, because patients do not always fit the model provided in training.
As a patient, I had an insurance claim denied, because it was incorrectly coded. When I called the office, they said I was not a typical visit, and they did not know how to code it. It was very frustrating.


It’s almost as if they were people.

Frustrating is that we have a multi-million dollar industry just to teach doctor’s offices how to code things most lucratively for doctors. Every insurance company has different codes. It’s crazy.

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So, for this discussion I thought I would provide what I think may be a bad example of a worked example. It is clear from reading Chapter 11 that worked examples are beneficial for learning how to solve math problems. As I was reading this chapter, I kept thinking about various homework aids available for students.

There is an app called Photomath, that is poplular with many parents and students. You simply download the app on your phone or Ipad, and take a picture of the math problem you are attempting to solve.
I took a picture of a problem from a 5th grade math textbook.

The app immediately produces the answer. Once you click on the answer, you are able to see how the problem was worked.

I believe this app could be improved if fading was used instead of simply giving the student the correct response. A self-explanation question could also be added between steps in the solution. You can click on each step for a brief explanation, but these could be expanded as well.
I believe the addition of these principles discussed by C & M (2011) would allow students to apply the steps to similar problems in the future instead of presenting the answer immediately.


I can think of a few examples of how we utilize work examples in training pilots. From e-learning to utilizing our full motion simulators we rely on these concepts to accomplish training in a cheaper and safer (not flying) environment. Here is one example. While flying at night we almost always wear Night Vision Googles. It enhances your situational awareness at night at illuminates hazards that you would not be able to see unaided. There is a risk to wearing NVGs though. Your field of view is drastically reduced (it’s just like looking through binoculars) and there is a sense of security because you can see in almost complete darkness. We use work example to help explain the risks and hazards to the pilots. This is required annual training produced using many of the concepts we have learned about. Audio and visual is the main media presented to the student. At the end of the lesson they are tested to make sure they meet the minimum level of knowledge. To ensure there has been far transfer they are given a check flight were an instructor examines the students’ knowledge of NVG procedures and hazards. Failure of this knowledge results in restricting the pilot to day time operations only.

Below is a screen shot example from said training:


But when I am checking the answers of my kids math homework I WANT ANSWERS @Lorie_Evans!! I have had my son ask me for my phone so he can see if he is doing the problem correctly. That results in us sitting down and doing the problem together without the use of technology (sometimes a struggle for me). I think that’s a better learning environment. I don’t remember doing the type of math problems they are expected to do in 5th grade today.


Working in the healthcare system and also having parents who require extensive hospital stays, I definitely see the frustrating sides from both aspects. For as large as the healthcare industry is, one would think a lot of insurance kinks would be worked out… Ha…I know wishful thinking!!

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I also agree how simulations can help the training components in most work environments. I think more companies could benefit from simulations because as you stated they are more economical than sending staff for training.

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There are a lot of different aids available for helping with homework, some way better than others. I agree that there could be easier ways to describe how the problems are solved for the student to understand. And I’ll say I don’t envy @nrhudson because already my 4 year old doesn’t want to sit down and do one page of homework, let alone how it will be when he has real homework. So many things are taught way different than how we learned years ago!

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I am not familiar with the “Granddad” cartoon character, either. I thought Ashley’s choice of pictures illustrated well the various groups of students.


Full confession @nrhudson. I bought the teacher’s edition of my son’s math textbook. It does make it easier for us to sit down and work through problems together, and he is not allowed to see the teacher’s edition.
I agree parents need as much help as possible with homework these days, and children need more parents like you sitting down with them at night.


That is a brilliant idea! Then you could work on examples that they probably did in class at home. I am so considering this next year. My head just exploded! THANKS


In the summer of 2014 when I began this program, Dr. Dempsey required us to take the USA Online Course. This course had a series of worked problems in it that allowed me to learn how to operate Sakai. To pass the course, I had to pass the quizzes. I think this program was designed with worked examples as a way to help guide the learner to see all the different functions of Sakai. In the course, there were a series of screen shots with directional arrows and instructions on some pages. After reading that material, a person or an animation would explain to the learner what he or she had just seen. This example is a good presentation of a worked problem because it is set around a process that students need to learn: navigating Sakai and using all of its features. This course also has the student answer questions in a quiz. This makes the learners accountable to the information they should be retaining. This program will promote the transfer of learning because it is almost a see monkey do monkey approach. At least, that is how I used it. When I was taking the course, I would learn a feature and then go an try it out in the class I was taking. I went through the modules more slowly because I was practicing the skills that I was learning.

My only problem with this course is that after taking 581 and learning about the multimedia principles, I think that the course should be edited. I noticed that a lot of the spoken words were also visually on the screen. Also, they have too much on one page with the graphics, words, and the audio. @pfaffman- you should tell the ILC to redo their course to apply Clark and Mayer’s principles. It would help the overall population of online learners. Did anyone else take the Learning Sakai course?