Readings: E-Learning: Chapter 14

isd581
#1

Chapter 14—Who’s in Control? Guidelines for e-Learning Navigation (pages 308–336)

Hello team 581! Welcome to week 11. This week Chapter 14 is required.

There are a lot of good topics covered in this week reading. One of them includes learner preference. Do you know what your preference is? Check out this 20 question quiz to help identify what your preference is.

##What to do:

Read the Chapter. Write your response by Thursday. Reply to at least 2 people’s posts. :heart: at least 3 that seem interesting, provocative, that you agree with, or otherwise wish to acknowledge. At least one of your responses should be written after Thursday when everyone has had a chance to post. Ideally, you’ll participate on at least three different days.

What to write about:

Here are some guidelines to help foster the discussion

  1. What type of learner are you? See link above. Is that important for you to understand in creating e-learning content? What about the learning preference of your target audience?
  2. What are some ways to incorporate different types of learning in an e-learning course?
  3. What are some pros and cons to providing total learner control in an e-learning scenario?

@nrhudson

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#2

What type of learner are you?

I am a mix, almost equally, between visual and tactile.

##Is that important for you to understand in creating e-learning content? I think that it is important for you to understand how you learn best because it might affect the way you develop your teaching. You might tend toward visual images and movies if you are a visual learner. More importantly though, you need to be aware enough to influence all types of learners. You need to create instruction that can appeal to the visual, auditory, and tactile learner. C & M (2011) state that there is little connection between learning and liking (pp. 317). One does not need to like how they are learning to learn the materials.

What about the learning preference of your target audience?

Determining of the learning preferences of your audience is important, but only to a certain point. Depending on how large the audience is, you will most likely find a mix of all learning preferences. This is why it is important to try to hit as many learning styles/preferences as possible. You should incorporate all possible aspects of learning to engage the largest number of people possible.

What are some ways to incorporate different types of learning in an e-learning course?

For the visual learners, you can have animations, videos, graphics, and photos. For the auditory learner, recorded or written lectures, podcasts, or a video would be beneficial. For tactile learners, they need to be doing something. I feel that this one is the hardest to reach in this medium. Due to the nature of online learning, you are confined to words and images, which seem to work in the other two learning styles favor. So, to reach the tactile person, I feel that you need to do any type of discover learning you can. @pfaffman has done a good job at teaching us this new technology this way. We have been able to interact with it and experience it in our own way.
C & M point out that for novice learners who are unable to regulate their own learning have frequent questions and answers can help the learner determine what he or she knows or does not know.

##What are some pros and cons to providing total learner control in an e-learning scenario? I think the cons will always be present when time is an issue and people are involved. Like in these online courses, the professors must give us a time frame to work on each topic. If not, there would be people like me, that would have the course completed in a month and others who would never be able to get it done. Some people need the guidelines and restrictions to motivate them or help them organize themselves. It would be hard to have the class “discussions” online if there was no one else there to “talk” with. A pro to giving a learner total control with the pacing is that he can really make sure he completely understand a topic before he moves on. Like C & M (2011) suggest, breaking up the information into smaller parts and letting the learner access it on his own time. Learning has been shown to increase when learners can control the pace of their own learning.

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#3

###I knew it before I even began the quiz. I don’t care as much to listen, as I like to look and practice myself. Words are certainly helpful, but these scores make me ears seem useless!! :sob::ear::thumbsdown: okay, I’m being a bit dramatic but you get my point

It is important to understand what type of learner I am while creating e-learning. I believe for the biggest reason is to avoid biased instruction. At the beginning of this course, I was all for graphics everywhere, all the time, on every slide. This is partly because I know I personally like to see images that allow me to commit content to memory and use them as a visual reference point. However, not everyone thinks and learns as I do. In addition, C & M have taught me so much about only using what is necessary that can help students and much emphasis is placed on cognitive overload, something unnecessary graphics can attribute to.

C & M discuss how liking and learning are not the same thing. Students may like to hear audio lectures and they feel they like to learn or study that way, but studies show that practice and repetition go further than what students like.

###Some ways to incorporate different types of learning in an e-learning course… would first need a decision made concerning if it will be asynchronous or synchronous. Since this chapter discusses asynchronous more, I will discuss the ladder. For an asynchronous course, I think it would be great to add an avatar, to assist students walking through the course. This avatar could prompt them, give them insight on the content on the current screen, and be a visual making it personal and attentive. Learners could still benefit from this course being paced even with having an avatar. The avatar could act somewhat like its continue button (navigational controls). Content sequencing could be set up deliberately to maneuver through practice examples or allowing the learner to jump around where they feel the need. The avatar could also be used to guide learners through worked examples. To benefit all types of learners, the avatar could use callout graphics for its speech and/or audio. Other additional graphics, audio or animation could be used throughout the course.

C & M make it clear that total learner control can be good for high prior learners and learners with high metacognition. These types of learners can typically grasp the information necessary to commit it to memory. Unfortunately, for low prior learners and learners with low metacognition, studies show that they do not do as well as the high prior learners in high learner control courses. To answer the question more concisely…

###PROS

  1. Learners can take as much time as necessary to grasp the information being studied

  2. Learners are able to navigate as they desire

  3. Learners are able to skip content they feel they have competency in so that they are not wasting any time going through the course

###CONS

  1. Learners may take too much time looking at information that does not need a long time to digest
  1. Learners navigate through the course and miss information that they should spend time studying
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#4

Including lots of different types of instruction is always a good idea. The more different ways you do something, the more likely that some of it will stick. But

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#5

I completed the quiz for learning styles and I am predominantly a auditory learner. I used to recite information to my mom to study but I usually consider myself a visual learner. I guess you can always learn something more. I do see how instructional designers need to take the different types of learning styles into consideration when creating instructional material. Knowing how to appeal to all three without overloading the learner is also important.

My Scores:

Auditory: 55%

Visual: 20%

Tactile: 25%


One way to incorporate different types of learning styles into instruction is to offer the learner some control to direct his/hers own learning. Clark and Mayer (2011) pointed out three leaning controls which are content sequencing, pacing and access to learning support. All important, I think learning support and additional resources are integral for learners to be able to control their individual learning. I agree with the text that high prior knowledge allows a learner to preform better with more control and low prior knowledge learners may struggle with more control. Overall knowing your learners preliminary skills to help direct the learning towards them is most beneficial but not always realistic.

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#6

What type of learner are you?

Is that important for you to understand in creating e-learning content?

I don’t necessarily feel that my learning preferences are instrumental in building my e-learning courses. Because although the quiz states that I am more of an auditory learner and not so much a tactile learner, I feel that hands on simulations help with knowledge transfer and is extremely beneficial. And we also have to remember when building courses that if we construct the class around our style, it may not fit the needs of the learning styles of our students. We should always incorporate a good mix into each class that is built. Or we could simply use the quiz we took, provide it to the students, and incorporate the learning style strengths of the majority of the class into the construction.

What about the learning preference of your target audience?

We have to take into consideration the size of the target audience that we will be leading in the e-learning course. It is important to engage as many learners as we can. And as I stated above, we could always quiz or poll the students to see what their learning preferences are. Incorporating a good mixture of all three learning styles will definitely hit the target audience.

What are some ways to incorporate different types of learning in an e-learning course?

Visual Learners- powerpoint presentatins, graphics, charts, and photos

Auditory- videos, podcasts, or powerpoint presentations with audio

Tactile- hands on simulations

What are some pros and cons to providing total learner control in an e-learning scenario?

Pros

  • Learners can navigate the course at their own speed

  • Learners can study the course material when they can squeeze in the time versus a specific time in the classroom

  • Learners can navigate the course to see what specific information they want to focus on first and not necessarily follow the outline of the material

Cons

  • Learners may miss material that they don’t feel is important as they skim through the course at first glance

  • Learners who self pace may go slower than they should and get behind in the weekly class material

  • Learners may not spend enough time engaging in the forum activities or threaded discussions and spend more time in independent thought. Students who don’t participate in his activity may miss a lot of really good ideas their other e-learning classmates have.

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#7

I agree with having additional resources that we should make available. But we also need to remember not to use something that isn’t beneficial towards the main idea in the objective of the week’s material. I have found in a couple of online classes I have taken that the teacher wants to overload the resource section and they don’t give a lot of direction as to what is important to the weekly lessons.

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#8

Adding an avatar is a great idea. I think it might make the learner more comfortable. They would feel like they were interacting with a person. The avatar could use the words like you and your that would engage the learner and make them take it more personally.

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#9

I think that navigating at your own speed is a real appeal to people. Many people seek online learning with the idea that they would be able to work at their own pace. But, like you said, often their own pace is slower than it should be. Many people need deadlines to motivate them to get things done. I know in my own experience, if there is a deadline for something, I am more prone to move that up my to do list, especially if that thing is due the next day. :slight_smile:

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#10

This was my exact thought. It makes sense that you would lean toward developing training in a method that you align with. Understanding that concept might allow you to see past your preference and incorporate different methods in your training program.

[quote=“AshleyBurton, post:3, topic:2506”] I believe for the biggest reason is to avoid biased instruction.[/quote]

@pattijohnson in a perfect world this would be the best option - allowing the student the choice on how the material will be presented. However, this option can become time consuming and expensive limiting it usefulness.

This is a great idea, in essence this provides a life-like object for the learner to engage with. And, like you you stated if the avatar works like a continue button or an option to get more information it provide some control to the learner - enhancing the learning experience.

Yea - I don’t know if I totally agree with the quiz as well, I just thought it was a quick way to identify and get you thinking about the styles you relate too.

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#11

This is especially important for training in the workplace. Depending on the organization or business, training in the workplace can, at times, be ineffective because high prior knowledge learners (current employees) are asked to review information they have already learned and practice instead of being presented new information.

Some ways that I would choose to create instruction for high prior knowledge learners in the workforce would be to allow for learner control with deliberate content sequencing. I would include content that would motivate these high prior knowledge learners by using stories and various perspectives of people in the field who have had successes and mistakes and that include a takeaway.

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#12

I agree. I think it is beneficial to include a variety of instructional materials. Video lectures or audio lectures, reading material, discussion boards. All of these avenues to learning touch all learning styles which is ultimately beneficial for the student because they will not always get the type of instruction they prefer, and they must be able to adapt also.

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#13

Patti:

I feel that given “the learner some control to direct his/hers own learning” is how students become self-regulated learners.

I have worked with students with academic deficits my entire teaching career. It is extremely important to teach students that everyone is capable of learning anything but that not everyone learns using the same strategies.

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#14

What to do:

Read the Chapter. Write your response by Thursday. Reply to at least 2 people’s posts. :heart: at least 3 that seem interesting, provocative, that you agree with, or otherwise wish to acknowledge. At least one of your responses should be written after Thursday when everyone has had a chance to post. Ideally, you’ll participate on at least three different days.

What to write about:

Here are some guidelines to help foster the discussion ####1.What type of learner are you? Interestingly: Auditory: 30% Visual 40% and Tactile 30%

I think it is important to understand learning styles, but according to C & M, learning styles are not useful when creating e-learning content. Therefore the learning preference of a target audience should not be the main objective; instead limited working memory capacity and ways to facilitate transfer of learning should be considered first.

####2.What are some ways to incorporate different types of learning in an e-learning course?

I think adaptive control is an excellent way to adjust the lesson difficulty and the different types of learning. I also would use expertise reversal for students that need to be challenged.

####3.What are some pros and cons to providing total learner control in an e-learning scenario?

Total Control should be given to experienced learners. However, learner control in e-learning should be allowed; especially for movement within multiple paths or accessing additional information without leaving the screen.

Cons: I think being able to select topics in any sequence may not be a good thing for some people because important instruction could be omitted. Some learners may not be able to do well in a difficult course.

Pros: Allowing learners to have total control of the time spent on each lesson is a great idea because people process information differently. Cons: Total control of the time may cause people to never complete the course.

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#15

I enjoyed taking the quiz about learning styles. After getting the quiz results, I became curious and revised some of my lessons to see if I the lessons were designed base on my learning needs: mix: auditory 30%, visual 40%, and tactile: 30%. As you said, I should give the quiz to my students and then compared it.

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#16

Sjmasline: after I read your post about how important it is to “understand how you learn best because it might affect the way you develop your teaching;” I began thinking about the way I teach. I was certain I was going to be tactile.

However, I realized after taking the learning style quiz that I am a mix; which it should help me to “incorporate all possible aspects of learning to …”[quote=“sjmasline, post:2, topic:2506”] engage the largest number of people possible [/quote]

paid attention about what learning style I emphasize the most.

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#17

We will never be able to create content that fits every learners style. I think it’s more important to realize what styles you gravitate towards - more self awareness than anything. As an example - if my learning style favored auditory, the lessons I create might be heavily auditory (without me realizing it). This type of learning might not be appropriate in all situations.

Completely agree. Think there needs to be a balance when providing control to the learner. Enough to direct the training while still making sure the individual is receiving the required training.

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#18

##Chapter 14

I am most definitely a visual/tactile learner. Listening to someone talk for long periods of time actually annoys me. I learn best from illustrated descriptions and hands on experience.

I believe that it is important to understand learning preferences when designing e-learning. Those considerations are evidenced by offering different learner controls. In Chapter 14, C&M discuss:

  1. Content sequencing
  2. Pacing
  3. Access to learning support.

Content Sequencing can come from links placed with the lesson. However, a menu (closed or expandable) is a valuable tool for order as it allows learners to go back to a specific point without having to click through slides.

Using player buttons allows learners to control the pace of instruction. I have learned that its sometimes necessary to prevent rapid click through. I do this by inserting a question that must be answered. In the case of video I hide the controls until a certain point in the media.

Control Pros: Learner can repeat topics as needed. Control Cons: Learners can skip important areas.

Access to learning support is a great way to provide extra learning opportunities in a course for both advanced and beginners who have to take the same course.

The image below is an example of these principles. (Many of us have completed this course.) There is audio, a menu, a transcript, and segmented modules. However, you can’t open the summary until you complete each section.

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#19

I like your use of an avatar in the course.

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#20

You make an excellent point. I always like to add hands-on activities to any lesson. It is probably because it helps me to understand new material. I also feel my learning style changes in different situations. I am usually a visual/tactile learner. However, when I took Shakespeare in college, I preferred to listen to the plays after reading them over watching a play or movie. At Auburn the plays were available on vinyl and you could listen to them in the library.

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